On 9 January 2017, one of the 20th century’s one of the most influential sociologists, Zygmunt Bauman passed away at age 91. The left-wing thinker, Bauman published more than 50 books, and he focused on modernity, globalisation, consumerism, ethics, equality and inequality. A critic of globalisation, he used the phrase “liquid modernity” to describe marginalised and rootless individuals.1 Bauman gave his last major TV interview to Al Jazeera last year. He talked about the current political and social issues of the world. In the interview, he was evaluating the consequences of the migration crisis in the short term and long term, explaining why the populist discourses are rising and populist leaders are getting stronger. What makes European people afraid? Is the ‘globalisation’ a threat for ‘our’ own boundaries?

It is important to analyse the interview with Zygmunt Bauman to understand current issues of the world, and their effects for future. This essay aims to analyse Bauman’s observations about Europe and the world, and to make his predictions about future more understandable. It is generally based on the interview and his books about globalisation and community.

According to Bauman, “the state” is an agent which makes a claim on establishing rules on the certain territory. The legislative and executive power of the modern state is established on military, economic and cultural sovereignty. First, global scene was a “politic theatre” which aimed to protect the borders in which each state set up its legislative and executive sovereignty. However; during the Cold War, two blocks dominated the World encouraged coordination between states which has been in their power areas. Therefore, global scene broke the military, economic and cultural sovereignty of nation states, and it made the borders invisible which was drawn by the way of conflicts and negotiation. It is the time of the globalisation for the world, and Bauman mentioned in one of his articles “More than anything else, ‘globalisation’ means that the network of dependencies is fast acquiring a worldwide scope – a process which is not being matched by a similar extension of viable institutions of political control and by the emergence of anything like a truly global culture.”2

Today, globalisation is still one of the most challenging circumstances of the world. When the current political issues are examined, populist discourses are rising all around the world. Populist or far right politicians such as Donald Trump in the USA, Marine Le Pen in France or Nigel Farage in UK are in the limelight because they always mention the ideas about the “fear” of people strongly. Bauman illuminates the term “liquid fear” to describe the situation of people on every level of human life that is ‘uncertainty’. Bauman says in the interview “Liquid fear means fear flowing on our own court, not staying in one place but diffuse.” Uncertainty puts people who are lower down in social hierarchy, living in poverty or close to poverty into a very complex situation; it is impossible to predict the future, and people find themselves uneasy, lost to act with certainty. Bauman terms these people as “precariat” that comes from a French word “precarité” which means walking on moving sands. Especially this “precariat” in Europe and the USA pays attention to populist politicians because they think that globalisation treat their own borders, security and nations. They demand balance between security and freedom, and for this reason they believe that only strong politicians/leaders can create this balance, only they provide a total safety and welfare for them, “precariat”. They already accept to exchange their freedom for security, and they do not care whether the leader or the government is totalitarian because they have never experienced totalitarianism. As Charles Tilly, has already said “the government has organised a protection racket”.  “Precariat” accepts the “protection racket” to makes their country more powerful. Bauman says “Strong men, more and more people dream about returning somebody who has the courage, the ambition, the boldness to say, give me the power and I will take responsibility for your future” to make clear the Presidency of Donald Trump, president of the “Great United State”. However, he highlights that it is not just the case of US, this is in every country of the world. He also pays attention to that the rise of populist discourses and leaders is related with fail of democracy. People consider that democracy did not pass the test, it is weak and very strong in mouth but not in its deeds. Thus, “America will be again great or Marine Le Pen in France will be again great”. Strong power also means strong economy, and people who suffered by mainly 2008 economic crisis consider that strong leader provides economic progress in growing GNP.

Today, the other reason for liquid fear is the migration crisis which influences particularly Europe. There were always waves of migration for many decades to Europe, and people were generally economic migrants. However, the situation is very different today. Many migrants flee their countries because of the war and violent conflicts. Many of them had homes, position in society, were educated and well off in their own country. Nevertheless, they lost their home, position in society, everything that they had worked to achieve during their lives; and now they are refugees. They go to Europe. Precariat does not say welcome to refugees because refugees symbolise their fear and the hard truths. Refugees bring bad news from their country, and they put these at precariat’s backyard. These people lower down in social hierarchy in Europe are afraid of lost their jobs, rights and social position because of refugees as Bauman says “Precariat lives by anxiety, by fear”. People in middle class are self- assured and well of thanks to their powerful politicians. They support these kind politicians because they promise for banning migration and defeating damages of “globalisation” for their country. Bauman makes clear this with these sentences “…and we ascribe this fear logically to the fact that somewhere in the cyber space well beyond control of our government, not to mention our own control. There are forces which we call by the name of ‘global’, ‘global powers’. Which can do whatever they wish, they may strike at any moment. If my job is threatened, that is because of the process of globalisation.”

The title of this essay became a quote from Bauman. He thinks that the shock is only beginning. Last year or now the wave of immigration was or is not the last one, and populist leaders may become in the limelight for years, but this is not for a long time. Bauman depicts that there is no shortcut solution for current problems. He says “dialogue is a long long process coming to an understanding takes some time the whole generation, even more than one generation. So, we have to brace ourselves to very difficult time coming”. Dialogue he depicts is a long road to integration without separation to solve conflicts. Divisions and conflicts between people is as old as humanity, but the solution is possible and powerful. Our world lives in hard times now. However, as Albert Sorel said that when the world change its suit, incidents become inescapable. Zygmunt Bauman witnessed many changes throughout his life, but he cannot witness the changing of our hard times. Au revoir, Zygmunt Bauman!


1 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38568257

Bauman, Zygmunt. Community : seeking safety in an insecure world. Cambridge : Polity ; Malden, MA : Blackwell, 2001. P. 89-109

Other Sources

Bauman, Zygmunt. Küreselleşme: toplumsal sonuçları. İstanbul : Ayrıntı Yayınları, 2012.



Selen Duruşkan



From GDP per capita and Gini coefficient to HDI and happiness, Scandinavian countries are the best application of social democracy in today’s world. This situation has its roots on the consensus driven political culture. Today the term called Nordic Model demonstrates government and economic models in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. This model includes both free market capitalism and welfare state. The United Nations World Happiness Report shows that the happiest nations of the world are the Scandinavian & Nordic nations. There are some economic and basic cultural features of this region.

When we look at the case from the glasses of economics, social corporatism is a considerable feature of Scandinavian countries. What does that mean? For instance, in Sweden and Denmark, by the mediation of government employer federations and labour unions negotiate on issues such as wages. This negotiations preserve the rights of labourers and capital owners. Social corporatism is a well performed example of the mixture of market capitalism and social democracy. Economists refer Scandinavian countries as cuddly capitalism, rather than the cut throat capitalism as in the USA. Free market capitalism is an important part of the growth of the Scandinavian economies, however, in Norway there are lots of state owned enterprises. Important point that must be underlined is that free market capitalism did not lead to great inequality rates. If you look at Sweden’s case, after 1990’s, in contrast with neoliberal economic policies, inequality rate did not change so much. On the other hand, after-accounting tax and transfer payments poverty rates in all of the Scandinavian countries are under the 10%, and this rate can be considered as a success compared to the world.

There is no doubt that, welfare is not just about the numbers, also certain main characteristics are required to maintain the welfare. Some principal institutions are so much developed in these countries. Actually when there is no law, there would be a dangerously unstable situation in terms of all aspects for a country. In Scandinavian countries, rule of law is a highly respected phenomena. If we think in a causal relation, strict rule of law lowers corruption, so government resources are allocated well. Reallocation without corruption results in lowest inequality rates in the world. On the other hand, rule of law causes another path to make growth rates stable: property owning and investment. Residents and non-residents of the Scandinavian countries are aware of the fact that because of the rule of law, their property rights are protected. This awareness increase people’s tendency to invest in these countries. Additionally, Scandinavian countries have openness policies to foreign investment, this also eases to make investment in these countries. There is the last but the most influential feature for all of the phenomena that have been mentioned in these essay: trust. Simple, people trust each other in institutions in their countries. This is a hard topic to measure but there are empirical data[1] from studies of European Commission, OECD and World Values Survey that show that trust in these welfare countries at public level is high.


[1] http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm





Furkan Demirbaş

Great Famine: “God sent the blight, but English created the Famine.”

“Irish Famine” has been referred to a strange epidemic which has killed more than a million Irish, and has been examined as a biological case. The researchers found that strain of HERB-1 as the crucial element to cause this wide-spread and infamous famine. Surely, it was a biological event, yet, it occurred in a certain historical context which has brought Irish to suffer rather than others would do. Dominant regard on Great Famine fails to recognise that the development of famine was not an ideological or abstract question of diplomatic wrongdoings in terms of trade relations between England and Ireland, but a symptom of emerging capitalism. This essay tries to dissect what caused the Famine.

One cannot deny the crucial trade relation between the English and Irish over centuries. Island has lacked such wide plains and the lords have usually been stuck in-between whether they use land for cattle or crop. It may be helpful to outline the historical change in this choice and development of agriculture to understand what lies behind such massive use of potatoes. In the 16th century, peasant diet was usually composed of oat, milk, and beef where the farmers exported mainly wood to England. By the 17th century, beef has disappeared from peasant staple for London’s demand on meat products – which made Irish’s 75% of exports.

This dramatic shift from oat to potatoes has occurred in the 18th century when lords enclosed the lands, pushed the peasants, and started to produce cattle. Furthermore, by the Corn Law, there started tariff on importation of corns which led to raise corn prices and to increase grain production in Ireland. London was growing as it becomes the centre of the world’s strongest power, and, also, expanding as an industrial city. 19th century remarked huge population flow from Ireland to colonies, especially to America. When the Famine occurred during the period of 1845-49 over million Irish labour population has died, and many others have migrated to other lands. It is logical that since poor Irish peasants had nothing to eat but potatoes to survive their day-to-day life, an infection in potato would surely affect such huge numbers of labour population to starve to the death.

How the Irish has faced with such great starvation might be explained with the accumulation of such social and economic context. After all their main diet did not suddenly became potatoes, or it was not a matter of consumption choice, either. Mass removal of tenant farmers by the lords have left the Irish destitute, after the crop failure millions starved. Furthermore, governments of the time had not even reacted quickly, and “let them die.” Moreover, during the famine years Ireland continued to export food with an average of 100,000 pounds sterling. As the Irish revolutionary of 19th century John Mitchel says “The Almighty, indeed, sent the potato blight, but the English created the famine.”


John MITCHEL, The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps) [1861], ed. Patrick MAUME, Dublin: UCD Press, 2005, p. 219.


Kaan Kubilay Aşar


Medya çalışmalarında “gündem oluşturma” her zaman uzun uzun araştırılan ve tartışılan bir konu olmuştur. Bugün de gerek Türkiye’de gerek Avrupa’da medyanın kişilerin ve o ülkenin gündemini belirlemekte etkin bir rol oynadığı yadsınamaz bir gerçektir. Bir ülkenin medyasında yer alan konu başlıkları aslında aynı zamanda, kitle iletişim araçları ile o ülkede yaşayan kişilerin de gündemi haline gelir. Ya da tam tersi bir bakış açısıyla kişilerin gündemi medyanın gündemi haline gelip kişilere tekrar yansıtılmaktadır. Her iki olasılıkta da medyanın gündeminin bireylerin gündemi ile organik bir bağ taşıdığı açıktır. Bu organik bağ da medyanın gücünü ve etkisini her geçen gün daha fazla artırmaktadır.[i]


Avrupa Konseyi’nin medya alanındaki hükümetler arası çalışma programı, 1976 yılında başlamıştır. Avrupa Konseyi çalışmalarında medyanın, demokrasinin vazgeçilmez bir aracı olduğu düşüncesinden hareket eder. Konsey medya alanındaki çalışmalarını 1981 yılından itibaren İnsan Hakları Genel Müdürlüğü bünyesinde gerçekleştirmektedir. 1987 yılında da medya ve iletişim konuları hükümetler arası çalışma programında ayrı bir alan olarak düzenlenmiştir.[ii] Bu alanda tartışılan konuların alt başlıklarından biri de “Avrupalı kimliği oluşturmada medya” olmuştur.

Avrupa’nın kurumları ve kimliği ile ilgili her tartışmada, sadece kurum ve kimlik sözcüklerinin anlamından dolayı değil aynı zamanda Avrupa projesinin kendi doğasından kaynaklanan, Avrupalı kültürü ve kimliğinin çok da fazla tanımlanabilir, izlenebilir ve her aşaması saptanabilir özellikte olmamasından dolayı da özel bir dikkat göstermek gerekmektedir. “Avrupalı kültürü ve kimliğinin inşası” her ne kadar sosyolojinin alanına girse de bu inşada medyanın da azımsanamayacak bir etkisinin bulunması, bu konuyu medya politikalarının da alanına sokar.[iii]

Avrupa söz konusu olduğunda, “inşa etmek” fiiline farklı bir anlam da yüklenmelidir. Aşama aşama, Avrupa Birliği, anlaşmalar, kurallar, toplumsal kurallar ve programlardan geçerek tanımlanmıştır. Halk kanunları ya da genel geçer kanunlar, her ulus devletin en temel kurallarıdır. Ve bunun tanımı, göreceli olarak gün be gün Avrupa Birliği’ndeki yaşamın içinde şekillenmiştir.[iv]

Avrupa bütünleşmesinde medyanın rolü nedir, Avrupa kamusal alanının yaratılması konusunda medyanın nasıl bir rolü olabilir gibi soruların yanıtı bizi öncelikle Avrupalı kimliği, Avrupa Birliği’nin kimliği gibi kavramlara açıklık getirmeye itmektedir. Avrupalı kimliğinin oluşumu da Avrupa Birliği ile olmuştur. Avrupalı olma özellikleri Avrupa Komisyonu’nun “İleri Çalışmalar” biriminde, “Avrupalı toplum modeli” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Bu model Avrupalılık özelliklerini, devlet için de geçerli olduğu gibi benzer aile yapılarını, gücün demokratik dağılımını ve kişisel hak ve özgürlükleri de içinde barındırır.[v]

Avrupalı kimliği aslında, Avrupa Birliği’nin dışında da anlam bulur, “Avrupalı”nın dışında kalan kimliği, Avrupa Birliği’nin uluslararası platformdaki geliştirici rolünün de bir esasıdır. Bu rol Avrupa Birliği kurumlarının üretimde ve algılamada günlük ya da paylaşılan Avrupalı kimliğinin AB’nin içinde ve dışında geliştirilmesi esas olan bir roldür.[vi]

Yeni Avrupa, Avrupa Birliği’nin içinde kurulmuştur. Avrupalılaşma süreci, Avrupa Birliği kurumlarının kurallar zinciri ve gündemi ile Avrupalı kimliğinin yeni formları ve kabulünü içeren bir süreçtir.[vii]

Avrupa Birliği’ne üye ülkelerinde görsel-işitsel alanda düzenleme yetkisinin kullanılmasında iki model gelişmiştir. Bazı üye ülkelerde (Almanya, Yunanistan, İrlanda, Avusturya, Hollanda) bağımsız ve özerk bir kurum veya ajans, lisanslama, ara bağlantı, erişim, fiyat kontrolü, frekans ve numaralandırma da dahil olmak üzere tüm alanlarda yetkilerini kullanmaktadır. Portekiz’de düzenleyici kurum frekans dışındaki tüm yetkileri kullanmaktadır. Diğer ülkelerde ise, düzenleyici kurum, yetkilerini ilgili bakanlık ile birlikte kullanmaktadır. Bu durumda yetkinin dağılmış olması, piyasaların beklentisi olan, düzenleyiciliğin tarafsız ve şüphe götürmezliğini zayıflatabilmektedir. Bütün üye ülkelerde ulusal düzenleyici otoritelerin yeterli derecede düzenleme yetkisi bulunmaktadır. Bununla birlikte, Belçika’da perakende tarifeleri ve ara bağlantı müracaatları; Finlandiya’da ise veri transferi konusunda daha fazla yetki gerekmektedir. Ayrıca, bazı düzenleyici faaliyetlerin gerçekleştirilebilmesi için de Hollanda’da şikâyet, Almanya’da talep gerekmesi, uygulamada gecikmelere sebep olabilmektedir.[viii]

Sonuç olarak, ülkeler çapında ve dünya çapında gündemi belirlemede medyanın yok sayılamayacak kadar büyük bir etkisi vardır. Kitle iletişim araçları ve sosyal medya, gündemi oluşturan olaylar ve konular ile halk arasındaki köprü görevi görmektedir. Aynı zamanda aksi yönde, halkın belirlediği ve önemsediği konular -özellikle sosyal medyanın yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte- ülke ve hatta dünya gündemini oluşturabilmektedir. İki durumda da medyanın giderek artan bir etkiyle gündem belirlemede rol oynadığı bu yazıda da görüldüğü gibi su götürmez bir gerçek.


[i] Avrupa Birliği’nin Medya Politikaları Ve Uyum Sürecinde Türk Medyası/ Meltem ACAR/sayfa 5

[ii] Avrupa Birliği’nin Medya Politikaları Ve Uyum Sürecinde Türk Medyası/ Meltem ACAR/sayfa 10

[iii] Avrupa Birliği’nin Medya Politikaları Ve Uyum Sürecinde Türk Medyası/ Meltem ACAR/sayfa 10

[iv] Irene Bellier and Thomes M. Wilson, “Building, İmaging and Experiancing Europe: Instıtutions and Indenties in the EU”, An Antrophology of the European Union, 2000.

[v] Avrupa Birliği’nin Medya Politikaları Ve Uyum Sürecinde Türk Medyası/ Meltem ACAR/sayfa 11

[vi] Irene Bellier and Thomes M. Wilson, “Building, İmaging and Experiancing Europe: Instıtutions and Indenties in the EU”, An Antrophology of the European Union, 2000.

[vii] Avrupa Birliği’nin Medya Politikaları Ve Uyum Sürecinde Türk Medyası/ Meltem ACAR/sayfa 11

[viii] Eight Report from the Commission on the Implementation of the Telecommunications Regulatory Package, COM(2002) 695 final, s.18 -19


Rumeysa Aydemir


German Question Through a Diplomatic and International Relations Perspective

The German Question was a controversial issue based on the Unification of Germany in 19th century. The question emerged especially during 1848 Revolutions on how to accomplish German Unification in the best way. Since it had an huge impact on the drawing borders of Europe, it had critical importance on international arena. It should be noted that it was not taken well by other European states which some had conflict in interests and others did not want any powerful enemy just nearby of. However, the common point for all was the fact that German was posing a threat especially under becoming more powerful states as an union of their nations.

First of all, the background is important to know. Between the years of 1815 and 1866, there existed 37 German-speaking independent state under the name of German Confederation including Prussia as the most dominant state. Especially with the alliance of Austria and contribution of Otto von Bismarck of Prussia who pursued the ‘’blood and iron’’ and skilful understanding of realpolitik, those German-speaking independent states were meant to be unified under one state. Meanwhile, different kind of scenerios came to stage such as Kleindeutschland and Grossdeutschland. Common point was to unify Germans any way. Their efforts were similar to Italian Unifications in terms of unifying people who had the same ethnicity and language.

Growing Germany meant growing threat since Prussia made war with many of the European states such as Austria, Denmark, France. Actually there were several reasons why unified Germans posed a threat from different perspectives of different states. For instance, France had war with Prussia and lost the Alsace-Loraine era which is important for coal reserves. This lost was shocking made France fear both economically and politically since it was kind of unexpected. This fact, later on, triggered the WW1 as one of the reasons to start. On the other hand, Britain did not want any powerful state on the European continent since it had already dealt with Napoleon I as an another counterforce. Any rising state meant any rising enemy for Britain. Also, with the growing importance of nationalism after French Revolution the emergence of nation-states as it was exemplified in German Unification which could be seen as a one of the greatest revolutions in the history of international relations as well. This meant threat for those multinational empires such as Austria-Hungary Empire and Ottoman Empire who had been recently struggling with rebellions on independence of nations.

In 1815, with the Congress of Vienna, balance of power which meant no state should gain power as much they could dominate one another, was accepted as a rule to organise international relations. Although this idea came as a counter-idea of Napoleon dominating over Europe, it played a huge role in the construction of diplomacy based on peace through the century in Europe. However, the fact that Germany and Italy became two powers in the continent meant such a balance could be abolished. In the long run it had even impact on the emergence of WWI resulting in catastrophic circumstances in addition to the change in the balances of power between states.


İlayda Bal

Gender Perception in Sweden

The issue of gender and sexuality have been discussed around the strict distinction between the gender norms in today’s world. Focusing on the Europe, such efforts including the revising the gender signs of bathrooms and traffic lights, gender neutral toilets, and gender neutral uniforms have been put in order to change the perception towards the gender roles.

Traditionally, gender equality has been considered as very strong in Scandinavia.  Sweden is known as one of the prominent countries in terms of enhancing gender equality. The country was ranked fourth in 2014 gender equality report of the World Economic Forum. In 1972, the Swedish government decided to work on equal opportunities between the sexes, which has made the gender equality a central political issue. Some of them are the improvements in the parental allowance systems, individual taxation, child care systems. Furthermore, the concept of gender neutral policy which insists on the rejection of the idea that different genders have different characteristics wants and needs began in 1998 by the amendment to Sweden’s Education Act that points to the idea that ‘all schools must work against gender stereotyping’.

In 2012, Egalia, a pre-school in Stockholm for the children aged between 1 to 6, opened and embraced the gender neutral policy. According to the news of Jenny Soffel from Independent, the school wants to make sure that the children are not exposed to sexual stereotypes. The toys on the shelves are not separated according to the gender norms, instead, they are deliberately put side-by-side. This operation in Sweden aims to make children feel free to choose any toys rather than forcing them to get toys according to gender norms.Their assigned books are also appropriately choosen in order to avoid traditional understanding of men and women and of the parenting roles. According to the BBC News, “the teachers avoid using the pronouns “him” (which is ‘han’ in the Swedish language) and “her” (which is ‘hon’ in the Swedish language) when talking to the children. Instead they refer to them as “friends”, by their first names, or as “hen” – a genderless pronoun borrowed from Finnish”.

Furthermore, in 2015, the country included this gender neutral pronoun -‘hen’- into their offical dictionary. This pronoun was recognized by the Swedish Academy and was incuded in the country’s esteemed dictionary SAOL. By these official acceptance, ‘the use of ‘hen’ has been used more in everyday life and challenged the ascribed gender norms’ were told by the  linguistic expert Sofia Malmgård in an interview with Washington Post.

The reactions towards these practices has divided into two groups in Sweden. Some people do not find these operations and new attempts by arguing that this kind of society is not the reality of the world and outside of the country would challenge their life. In addition, a group of people argue that ongoing supplementation of the practices of public discourse of gender equality is moving towards market based policy. Hence, Eva Olofsson, researcher at Umeå University, asserts that in 1990s the ‘meeting the needs of the learner’ discourse came to the forefront, meaning that the teachers should base their work on the students’ needs and interest, and examines whether teaching would become marked-led or not. However, the supporters of these policies believe that gender neutral education allows children to grow up without feeling the pressure of gender biases. Furthermore, they argue that the world is changing in the way that people become indulgent to gender equality, thus, thanks to these policies, these children will be ready to live in the world in which the gender question will have been already solved.


“Insight Report The Global Gender Gap Report 2014. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2916.

Soffel, Jenny. “Gender-Neutral’ Pre-School Accused of Mind Control.” www.independent.co.uk. Independent, 3 July 2011. Web. 18 Nov. 2016

Hebblethwaite, Cordelia. “Sweden’s ‘Gender-Neutral’ Pre-School.” www.bbc.com. BBC News, 8 July 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2016

Noack, Rick. “Sweden is About to Add a Gender Neutral Pronoun to Its Official Dictionary.” www.washingtonpost.com. 1 Ap 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2016

Olofsson, Eva. “The Discursive Construction of Gender in Physical Education in Sweden, 1945-2003: Is Meeting the Learner’s Needs Tantamount to Meeting the Market’s Needs?” European Physical Education Review. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.


Seden Gürlek

AÇMÖF Bülteni | Dosya: Brexit ve Avrupa’nın Geleceği yayınlandı!

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Avrupa Çalışmaları Merkezi Öğrenci Forumu (AÇMÖF), süreli yayın olarak çıkarılmaya başlanan Akademik Bültenler Serisi’nin altıncı sayısı ile yeniden karşınızda!

20 Ekim 2006 tarihinde yayın hayatına başlayan ve günümüze dek 33 sayıyı geride bırakan Boğaziçi Bülten’inde şimdiye kadar Avrupa Birliği’nden ifade özgürlüğüne, Hrant Dink özel sayısından, gündemde yer alan birçok konu hakkında analiz ve yorumlara yer verilmiştir.
Tamamen gönüllü yazarlara ev sahipliği yapan AÇMÖF’ün akademik bültenlerle bilim dünyasına katkı sağlama yolunda çıkardığı Akademik Bültenler Serisi’nin ilk sayısı (Dosya: Toplumsal Cinsiyet), ikinci sayısı (Dosya: Toplumsal Hareketler), üçüncü sayısı (Dosya: Ötekileştirme), dördüncü sayısı (Dosya:Avrupa) ve beşinci sayısı (Dosya:Suriye Krizi, Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye) ile Türkiye çapında olumlu dönüşler elde ederek hazırladığı altıncı bültenin kapak konusu ise Brexit ve Avrupa’nın geleceği olarak belirlenmiştir.

Keyifli okumalar dileriz!


Yar. Doç. Dr. Pelin Kadercan “Önsöz”……………………………………………………5

Melike Bilgin “Editörden”………………………………………………………………….7

Hüsnü İslam Söğüt “İngiltere’nin AB’ye Üyelik Süreci ve Brexit Sonrası Ayrılık Sü- reci”…………………………………………………………………………………………8

İlayda Bal “Inevitable Question As A Consequence Of EU Referandum:

Brexit Or Brextinct?”………………………………………………………………………11

Hüseyin Emre Ceyhun “Refugee Crisis After Brexit”…………………………………..16

Hale Kaşka “Federal Avrupa Hayali”…………………………………………………….19

Selen Duruşkan “Avrupa Genelinde Aşırı Sağın Yükselişi”……………………………..22

Sena Saylam “AB Parçalanıyor mu?”…………………………………………………….27

Rabia Kutlu “Is Europeanness An Identity?-Rethinking the Exit Option”………………30

Batuhan Kava “İngiliz Sterlininin Hikayesi Ve Brexit Sonrası İngiltere İçin Yapılan Ekonomik Tahminler”……………………………………………………………………..32

Cansu Yardımcı “Mülteci Kamplarından da Çıkış Var mı”………………………………35

Merve Keskin “European Union, Brexit and Xenophobia”………………………………37

Fatma Murat “European Union: Once An Empire?”…………………………………….39

Furkan Demirbaş “Euro Krizi ve Avrupa Politik Ekonomisi Üzerine”………………….41

Melike Bilgin “Sovereignty In the EU: Britain’s Dilemma And Brexit”………………….44

Rumeysa Aydemir “AB Yolunda Türkiye”……………………………………………….47


Avrupa Çalışmaları Merkezi Öğrenci Forumu Bülteni’ne ulaşmak için buraya tıklayınız.

Emre Gönen Eşliğindeki ”Avrupa’da Göçe Tarihsel Bakış” Etkinlik Raporu


İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi’nden Emre Gönen’in, 16 Kasım 2016 tarihinde Boğaziçi Üniversitesinde gerçekleştirdiğimiz akademik toplantı serilerimizden ilki olan “ Avrupa’da Göç” konferansının köşe taşlarını paylaşıyoruz.

Avrupa Çalışmaları Merkezi Öğrenci Forumu olarak, geçtiğimiz hafta Emre Gönen’i ağırladık. Bu konferansta kapsamlı bir göç tartışması, ve Avrupa’nın bu tarihi süreçte oynadığı roller irdelendi. Konuşmacı Emre Gönen, İstanbul Saint Josef Lisesi’nden Belçika ve Fransa’ya uzanan hayatında, akademisyenliği boyunca Avrupa, Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye üzerine yaptığı gözlem ve analizleriyle, ve konuyu ele alırken gösterdiği entelektüel kapasitesi ile dinleyicileri çıkardığı göç serüvenini sizinle paylaşıyoruz.

Ortaçağ’dan Modern Çağ’a Avrupa

Avrupa’da nüfus ve yaşam

“Avrupa hem kendi nüfusu, hem kendi içindeki popülasyon dinamikleri, hem de dünyadaki politikaları açısından insanların kaldıkları yerlerden başka yerlere gitmelerine en fazla neden olmuş medeniyettir. Yaşamanın kolay olması, nehir ağlarının düzenli olması, ve dolayısıyla ulaşımın nispeten kolay olması kendi nüfusunun yeşermesi ve hareketliliği açısından önemli unsurlar. Örneğin 13-14. Yüzyıllarda yaşanan korkunç veba salgınından sonra nüfusun inanılmaz bir şekilde arttığını görüyoruz. Yumuşak iklim ve yüksek tarım verimliliği bu nüfus patlamasının başat sebeplerinden.”

Avrupa Dünya’ya Açılıyor

“Sonraki dönemde Avrupa’daki krallıklar dış dünyaya merak salıyor, ve açılmaya başlıyor. Bu merakın altında yatan sebebi şu duruma bağlayabiliriz: aynı dönemlerde Çin, dünyadaki üretimin merkezi. Hem değer hem kullanış açısından çok önemli ürünler Doğu Asya’dan Avrupa topraklarına karayolu ticaretiyle ulaşıyor. Fakat bildiğiniz üzere, karayolu ticaretleri hep tehlikeli olmuştur: ya yol yoktur, ya hırsızlık çoktur. Avrupa da bunun üzerine deniz yoluna yöneliyor. Bu yolla Çin ve Hindistan’ı bulmaya çalışırken, Amerika keşfediliyor, ve dolayısıyla dünya tarihinde çok önemli sonuçlara yol açılıyor. Bunlardan en önemli ki sonuç şunlardır: 1) Avrupa’dan Amerika kıtasına büyük bir göç hareketi başlar, gönüllü ve zorunlu olarak. Örneğin, Cromwell döneminde istenmeyen Katolikler Amerika’ya gönderilmiştir. geç sömürgecilik dediğimiz dönemde göç hareketleri daha fazla artacaktır. 18-19. yy’de Avrupa’dan 60 milyona yakın kişi  kuzey ve güney Amerika’ya göçmüştür. 2) Latin ve Kuzey Amerika halkları para karşılığı çalışmak gibi bir medeniyetten gelmiyorlar. Gereken işgücü Afrika’dan getiriliyor. Bir kıtanın yerli halkı beyaz ırk tarafından sömürgeleştiriliyor.


Avrupa’nın İntiharı ve Sonrası

“20. yy’deki göç hareketlerinin de temel sebebi Avrupa’nın intihar niteliğindeki iki savaşı olmuştur. 2. Dünya savaşı daha büyük bir felakettir. Örneğin, savaş sonrasında 4.5 milyon öksüz ve yetim çocuk vardır. Hatta UNICEF bunun için kurulmuştur. Ortada büyük bir karmaşa vardır. bu karmaşa yüzünden vize uygulaması da bir süre uygulanmamıştır. Onun haricinde, bugün hala ulus-devletlerin yönettiği veya yönetemediği bir AB var. İlginçtir ki, İngiltere 1950’lerde Commonwealth üzerinden ticaret sistemine o kadar güveniyordu ki, en başta Avrupa Birliği fikrine dahil olmak istememiştir.”

“20. yüzyıl, büyük sürgünler yüzyılı. 2. Dünya Savaşından sonra işgücü ihtiyacı açığa çıkar. Fransa, İngiltere, ve Belçika’ya sömürge ülke popülasyonları vatandaşlık çerçevesinde gelir ve kalır. Ancak bir anlamda da, Avrupa bu ülkelere hem katkı yapmış hem de onların geçmişle bağlantılarının koparmıştır. Kalıcı bir vicdan azabı ve kırgınlık yaratmıştır. Sömürge sistemi içerisinde yıkıcı ilişkiler doğurmuştur. Örneğin, Güney Afrika’da ilk gelen Hollandalılarla, sonradan gelen İngilizler arasında 1901-2’de Boer Savaşı yaşanmıştır. Bu savaş hala bugün etkisini sürdüren Apartheid sisteminin tohumlarını atmıştır. 1930larda ise ırkçılık tüm insanlığa sinmiştir.“

İki Afrikalı Fransız’ın Hikayesi:

“Aime Cesaire, Leopold Sedar Senghor: 1930larda Afrikalı öğrenciler olarak Fransa’da dergi çıkarıyorlar. İşte bu dönemde İkisi “negritude” kelimesini yaratmışlardır. Kelime “negro” ve “servitude”dan türetme. Zenci olmanın insanı köleleştirmeye iten bir hal olduğunu ifade ediyor. Bu iki genç Afrikalı, böylesine zor bir dönemde tüm Avrupa’ya Afrikalının geldiği sosyal kökenin ve sömürge öncesi tarihinin yok edildiğini, unutturulduğunu söylüyor. ”

“1945-47 döneminden sonra da ciddi bir vize dönemi başlar. Nüfusu düzene sokma girişimi olmuştur, iş gücü açığı vardır. 1960’lardan, 1970-74’lere kadar özellikle Almanya’da iş gücü ihtiyacı açığa çıkınca vize dönemi tekrar sona erer diyebiliriz. Sömürge bölgelerdeki insanlar belli bir eğitim düzeyinde bırakılır, ve terkedilir. O yüzden farklı ülkelerden işgücü ihtiyacı karşılamaya gidilmiştir. Talep ve üretim birlikte artınca işgücü ihtiyacı oluşmuş, ve bu dönemde giden her işçi neredeyse iş bulmuştur. Bu vizesiz dönemi, 1973 Petrol Krizi sona erdirir. Yom Kippur savaşından sonra OPEC’in arzı düşürmesiyle petrol varil fiyatı 6 ayda 10 dolardan 44 dolara yükselir. Bu durumda enerji ile giden sanayilerin huzursuzluğu artar. İran kaynaklı 1979’daki ikinci petrol krizinden sonra, gelişmiş ülkelerde kronik işsizlik baş gösterir. Avrupa’nın ekonomisi ve politikası bu 1973 öncesi otuz altın yıldan sonra neredeyse geri dönülmez şekilde değişecektir.”


Avrupa Birliği ve Avrupa’nın Geleceği

“Kurulduğu dönemden itibaren, AB’de bir derinleşme söz konusu idi. Almanya ve Fransa gibi ülkeleri çekirdek olarak alan, ve çevreyi plana çok da dahil etmeyen bir AB vardı. Fakat bu organizasyon, Kopenhag kriterlerinin patlamasıyla bozulur. Bunun karşısında Avrupa’nın önünde genişleme ve derinleşme olarak iki seçenek vardır, ikisini de aynı anda yaparız derler, fakat bu başarıya ulaşamaz.

Öte yandan, göç sonrası dil ve eğitim kaynaklı birçok entegrasyon sıkıntısı olmuştur ve entegre olamayan kısım toplumdan dışlanmıştır. İş gücü alımında farklılık gösterme, kimliğe göre ayrımlar sürekli hale gelmiştir.”

Bugün Avrupa ve Göç

“Bugün Avrupa ülkelerinde göç öcü olarak gösteriliyor. Önemli bir neden  entegrasyon sorunları. Sömürge kökenli ailelerin azınlıklar olarak o toplumlarda daimi plebeien konuma itilmeleri. Yeni entegre kesim eğitimsiz, sadece işgücü için gelmiş. Göç olduğundan çok daha feci bir şeymiş gibi gösteriliyor.  Zaten, çoktan kopmuş olması gereken AB-Türkiye ilişkileri, geri kabul anlaşmasının kabulü ile kopmamış oldu. Bütün gelişmelere rağmen, ilişkilerin devam etmesinin sebebi bu, bir nevi, korkudur. Göçün ortaya çıkardığı bu gerginlik, fevkalade tehlikeli sonuçlar verebilir.”



Why We Will Soon Miss The Cold War

John J. Mearsheimer who is international relations theorist, reflected the fact that we are likely soon to regret the passing of the Cold War. Even if no one will want to face with Cold War de facto, we are likely soon to regret the passing of the Cold War.

To begin with, there is something that changed with Cold War era in international relations. In short-run it might not be worse in terms of violence after Cold War era, but in the long-run there will be much more violence since the distribution and character of military power among states are the root causes of war and peace as Mearsheimer said. The peace in Europe since 1945 has flowed from three factors: the bipolar distribution of military power on the Continent; the rough military equality between the polar power, the US and the Soviet Union; and the ritualistically deplored fact that each of these superpowers is armed with a large nuclear arsenal. Europe will have the multipolar distribution of power that Peace of Westphalia constructed again although it was abolished during Cold War in which bipolar system was formed. Bipolar system seemed more peaceful because of the alliances that were made between superpower and minor powers, meaning they guarantee cooperation under any attack. Actually this type is similar to the understanding of balance of power. Maybe that is why the author claims this bipolarity is more peaceful, thinking that those two superpowers and, with such guarantees, their minor powers established a balance meaning both parts were equally powerful and they could not dominate one another and this seemed as an everlasting period that no war occurred de facto which is the most desirable fact. On the contrary, it is so difficult to form such conditions in multipolarity in which each nation pursued their own interests without considering any balances in the international relations.

The size of the gap in military power between two leading states in the system is a key determinant of stability. Small gaps foster peace, large gaps promote war. In multipolarity, this gap is high because of the economical gap between states after all. Also with the developments during Cold War era, nuclear weapons emerged as a powerful force for peace since each part knows the destructive characteristics of it. In other words, nuclear weapons are one of the other deterrents meaning preventing states from certain acts.

Bipolarity, an equal balance of military power and nuclear weapons, is a tool for the maintenance of long-term peace as in the example of US and Russia. I believe, the development on technology in terms of improvement on war techniques resulted in deterrence between states because of any likely destruction rather than it could have resulted in more violent things. At this point, a tool that was supposed to increase the violation converted into a tool that prevented wars and formed the peace environment again. However, without nuclear weapons any likely war is deterred that could happen under the circumstances of USSR and unified Germany would become so powerful leading to another crisis which is hypernationalism. Hypernationalism means extreme nationalism and it would trigger wars to happen as in WWI one of the starting points was nationalism.

In conclusion, bipolarity in which communist Soviets and nightwatchmen liberals US balanced each other, was a period that no war is made although it could be in a most destructive way. Sometimes, I believe, even the things that seem the most dangerous might result in well-being. That well-being is completely what we need right now. Therefore, we will regret the passing of Cold War and miss it soon under the destructive ways we are living.


  • Mearsheimer, John. 1990. “Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War.” The Atlantic.


İlayda Bal

Could London Ever Remain The Financial Centre of The World After Brexit?

In September 2016, the Global Financial Centres Index 20 (GFCI 20) published its latest report, stating that London, New York, Singapore and Hong Kong are currently leading financial centres. In this report, London was ranked as the financial centre of the world, one point ahead of New York, with the remark that if the UK were to leave European Union, London’s place may change. In the post-Brexit period, the financial world has been shaken by the loss of confidence towards London. Uncertainties about the future of the UK’s economic relations triggered the speculations and concerns of economists over the question of London losing its position in the financial world. Old rivals such as Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam immediately started planning to capture the finance companies that are likely to be transported completely or partially outside of London as well as welcoming escapees from this market. Nevertheless, is it really the case that London will simply lose its place as the financial centre of the world?

Brexit results show that significant social cleavages in the UK played an important role in the configuration of the final decision. Leave and Remain votes are distributed according to divisions of the society through class, education and geography. One of the implications of these divisions is that most of the people working in finance, insurance, and foreign exchange trading and similar sectors voted against Brexit. The finance industry and insurance sectors are the main fields of concerns, which is not trivial. For example, many banks already think even though London hosts more than 70% of Euro trading, if it leaves the EU, it will not be able to clear Euro dominated swaps and a big crisis will emerge. Repercussions of these concerns have already started to be seen with the slowdown in financial sector recruitments. However, more serious problems might be expected due to uncertainty of the UK’s EU exit. It is most likely that, whether the UK decides to completely sever its partnership with EU at the end of the negotiations or not, the UK may lose its dominant position in the meantime because of flowing speculations of its economic capacity and reliability, while other states are working to substitute London as the financial centre.

However, there is a strong argument on the other side that London will never lose its dominance among the world financial centres. Simeon Djankov from LSE argues there are three fundamental reasons for that. First, the UK has a very well-organized and functioning legal system protecting the creditor and shareholder against threats coming from competitors and the state. So people have no reason to hesitate investing into this market. His second argument relies on the superiority of UK’s education in finance and economics departments. London and other cities of the UK have the best schools of economy and finance, especially in graduate studies; so they have a comparative advantage of profession at hand which is more likely to cause better long term effects than the first. The third factor is a call for trust and confidence in the UK’s market and finance sectors that the UK’s lower corporate tax rates and flexible employment laws give opportunities for the industry work effectively.

To sum up, the UK has a combination of uniquely established market mechanisms for being the financial centre of the world, which prevent it from being completely vulnerable to the effects of Brexit. However, it is important to watch the current process: whether London will remain as the world’s financial centre after post-Brexit negotiations. What if one of its rivals replace it silently, or will we see the proliferation of finance industry different than it used to be?


Ellyatt, Holly. “UK Sees Slump in Finance Sector Recruitment following Brexit Vote.” CNBC. September 23, 2016. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.cnbc.com/2016/09/23/uk-sees-slump-in-finance-sector-recruitment-following-brexit-vote.html.

Djankov, Simeon. “Why London Won’t Lose Its Crown as Europe’s Financial Capital.” The Conversation. August 30, 2016. Accessed November 9, 2016. https://theconversation.com/why-london-wont-lose-its-crown-as-europes-financial-capital-63362.

Finch, Gavin, and John Detrixhe. “Banks Said to Plan for Loss of Euro Clearing After Brexit.” Bloomberg. September 22, 2016. Accessed November 10, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-21/global-banks-said-to-plan-for-loss-of-euro-clearing-after-brexit.

Yeandle, Mark, and Michael Mainelli. “The Global Financial Centres Index 20.” September 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.longfinance.net/images/gfci/20/GFCI20_26Sep2016.pdf.


Merve Keskin